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Acupuncture: Review and Analysis of Reports on Controlled Clinical Trials
(87 pages)

Table of Contents
View the documentAcknowledgements
Open this folder and view contentsIntroduction
Open this folder and view contents1. General considerations
Open this folder and view contents2. Review of clinical trial reports
View the document3. Diseases and disorders that can be treated with acupuncture
View the document4. Summary table of controlled clinical trials
View the documentReferences
 

4. Summary table of controlled clinical trials

This section provides a tabulated summary of all the controlled clinical trials reviewed for this publication. For each study, information is provided on the author(s), the year of publication, the number of subjects involved, the study design, the type of acupuncture applied, the controls used and the results obtained.

Condition/Study

No.

Design

Test group

Control Group

Results

Abdominal pain in acute gastroenteritis (see also Gastrointestinal spasm)

Shu et al., 1997 (67)

25:25

Randomized controlled trial

Body acupuncture (manual)

Routine Western medication (intra-muscular atropine and promethazine)

Relief of pain was observed in:
• 24 of the test group, starting 1.3 min after acupuncture
• 17 of the control group, starting 11. 9 min after injection.

Acne vulgaris

Li et al., 1998 (228)

42:42

Randomized controlled trial

Body acupuncture (manual)

Herbal medication

After 30 days of treatment, a cure was observed in:
• 42.8% of the test group
• 19.0% of the control group.

Wang et al., 1997 (229)

32:20

Group comparison

Auricular acupuncture

Medication (oral vitamin B6 and antibiotics, local benzoyl peroxide ointment)

Acne disappeared after 10 days of treatment in:
• 19/32 (59%) in the test group.
• 7/20 (35%) in the control group.

Adverse reactions to radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy (see also Leukopenia (this includes leukopenia caused by chemotherapy); Nausea and vomiting)

Xia et al., 1984 (237)

49:20

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture during radiotherapy

Radiotherapy

Acupuncture greatly lessened digestive and nervous system reactions (anorexia, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and fatigue) due to radiotherapy and showed protection against damage to haematopoiesis.

Chen et al., 1996 (232)

44:23

Randomized controlled trial

Manual plus electric acupuncture

Western medication (metoclopramide, etc.)

Gastrointestinal reactions were cured in significantly more of the acupuncture group:
• 93.2% of test group after 5.8 ± 2.7 days of treatment
• 65.2% of control group after 9.4 ± 3.4 days of treatment.

Liu et al., 1998 (235)

40:40

Group comparison

Magnetic plus electric acupoint stimulation

Western medication (metoclopramide, etc.)

Acupoint stimulation therapy was comparable with intravenous metoclopramide for gastrointestinal reactions, and with dexamethasone and cysteine phenylacetate (leucogen) for leukopenia. The treatment was effective in:
• 87.5% of the test group
• 75.0% of the control group.

Wang et al., 1997 (236)

90

Randomized crossover study

Body acupuncture (manual)

Western medication (metoclopramide)

The treatment was effective in:
• 85.6% of the test group
• 61.1% of the control group.

Li et al., 1998 (234)

22:20

Randomized controlled trial

Body acupuncture (manual)

Intravenous injection of albumin, milk fat and amino acid

Natural killer cell activity and interleukin-2 were raised in the test group, but markedly lowered in the control group. During the 3-week observation period there was:
• no significant change of leukocyte and thrombocyte counts in the test group
• considerable lowering of both counts in the control.

Alcohol dependence, see Dependence, alcohol

Alcohol detoxification

Thorer et al., 1996 (212)

35

Sham controlled trial

Acupuncture at two different traditional point combinations

Acupuncture at a sham point or no acupuncture

Clinical measurement using tests of equilibrium and ntation, and specific tests of metabolism and elimination of alcohol, formed the basis of the comparison. There was no difference between the sham acupuncture and no acupuncture control groups. After both traditional acupuncture point combinations, clinical effects of alcohol intoxication were minimized, while the alcohol level in the expired air increased and blood alcohol decreased.

Allergic rhinitis (including hay fever)

Chari et al., 1988 (111)

25:20

Group comparison

Acupuncture

Antihistamine (chlorphenamine)

The treatment effects were better and lasted longer in the test group and produced no adverse effects.

Jin et al., 1989 (113)

100:60

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture plus moxibustion

Medication (patent herbal combination: tablets containing Herba Agastachis and Flos Chrysanthemi Indici)

At follow-up 1 month after 15 days of treatment improvement was observed in:
• 92/100 in the test group
• 47/60 in the control group.

Huang, 1990 (112)

128:120

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture plus moxibustion

Antihistamine (chlorphenamine)

Treatment for 14 days was effective in:
• 97% of the test group
• 75.8% of the control group.

Wolkenstein et al., 1993 (247)

12:12

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Sham acupuncture

The results did not indicate a protective effect of acupuncture therapy against allergen-provoked rhinitis.

Yu et al., 1994 (115)

230:30

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Antihistamine (oral astemizole plus nasal drip 1% ephedrine)

At follow-up 1 year after 4 weeks of treatment, improvement was observed in:
• 94% of the test group
• 76.7% of the control group.

Liu, 1995 (114)

50:30

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture at biqiu (located at the round prominence on the lateral mucous membrane of the lateral nasal cavity)

Nasal drip of cortisone plus ephedrine

The treatment was significantly more effective in the test group. Effective rates were:
• 86.0% in the test group
• 76.7% in control group.

Williamson et al., 1996 (116)

102

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Sham acupuncture

The therapeutic effects were similar in the two groups. In the 4-week period following the first treatment, remission of symptoms was seen in:
• 39% of the test group; mean weekly symptom scores, 18.4; mean units of medication used, 4.1
• 45.2% of the control group; mean weekly symptom scores, 17.6; mean units of medication used, 5.0.

Angina pectoris, see Coronary heart disease (angina pectoris)

Aphasia due to acute cerebrovascular disorders (see also Dysphagia in pseudobulbar paralysis)

Zhang et al., 1994 (102)

22:22

Randomized controlled trial

Scalp acupuncture

Conventional supportive measures

Assessed by a scoring method, the therapeutic effect was much better in the test group than in the control group. Before treatment, the two groups were comparable in various respects, including causal diseases and area of lesions.

Arthritis, see Gouty arthritis; Osteoarthritis; Peri rthritis of shoulder; Rheumatoid arthritis

Asthma, see Bronchial asthma

Bell’s palsy

You et al., 1993 (106)

25:25

Randomized controlled trial

Blood-letting acupuncture

Medication (vasodilator plus steroid, etc.)

A cure was achieved in:
• 96% of the test group
• 68% of the control group.

Lin, 1997 (105)

198:60

Group comparison

Through acupuncture (puncture of two or more adjoining points with one insertion)

Traditional acupuncture

After a 2-week treatment the cure rate was:
• 90.9% in the test group
• 76.7% in the control group.

Biliary colic (see also Cholecystitis, chronic, with acute exacerbation)

Mo, 1987 (62)

70:76

Group comparison

Acupuncture

Medication (injection of atropine plus pethidine

The analgesic effect was better in the test group than in the control group.

Yang et al., 1990 (64)

50:50

Group comparison

Electric acupuncture

Medication (injection of anisodamine (a Chinese medicine, structurally related to atropine, isolated from Anisodus tangutica) plus pethidine)

Total relief of colic was achieved in 1-3 min in:
• 36/50 (72%) in the test group
• 12/50 (24%) in the control group.
Partial relief was achieved in 5-10 min in:
• 10/50 in the test group
• 32/50 in the control group.

Wu et al., 1992 (63)

142

Group comparison

Acupuncture

Anisodamine

The treatment was effective in:
• 94.3% of the test group
• 80.0% of the control group.

Bladder problems, see Female urethral syndrome; Neuropathic bladder in spinal cord injury

Breathlessness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Jobst et al., 1986 (127)

12:12

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Placebo acupuncture (needling at non-acupuncture “dead” points)

After 3 weeks of treatment, the test group showed greater benefit in terms of subjective scores of breathlessness and 6-min walking distance. Objective measures of lung function were unchanged in both groups.

Bronchial asthma

Yu et al., 1976 (123)

20

Randomized cross-over

Acupuncture

Isoprenaline or sham acupuncture

Isoprenaline was more effective than real acupuncture. Both were more effective than sham acupuncture.

Tashkin et al., 1977 (121) (methacholine-induced)

12

Randomized cross-over

Acupuncture

Isoprenaline or placebo

Isoprenaline was more effective than acupuncture. Both were more effective than placebo.

Fung et al., 1986 (119) (exercise-induced)

19

Randomized single-blind crossover

Acupuncture

Sham acupuncture

Real acupuncture provided better protection against exercise-induced asthma than did sham acupuncture.

Tandon et al., 1989 (125) (histamine-induced)

16

Double-blind cross-over

Acupuncture

Acupuncture at irrelevant points

Treatment with real or placebo acupuncture failed to modulate the bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine, suggesting that a single treatment is unlikely to provide improvement in the management of acute bronchial asthma.

He et al., 1994 (120)

48:48

Randomized group comparison

Laser acupuncture

Moxibustion at same points as laser acupuncture

Pulmonary ventilation indices improved in:
• 33 of the test group
• 20 of the control group.

Xie et al., 1996 (122)

100

Randomized controlled trial with partial crossover

Electric acupuncture at fèishû (BL13) (n = 30)

Electric acupuncture at shàoshâng (LU11) (n =24) yújì (LU10) (n = 24), tàiyuân (LU9) (n = 30), jîngqú (LU8) (n = 28), lièquç (LU7) (n = 28) or qiûxû (GB40) (n = 24)

An anti-asthmatic effect was observed in:
• 28/30 of the test group (BL13); best immediate effect
• 20/24 LU11, 22/24 LU10, 24/30 LU9, 24/28 LU8, 21/28 LU7; good effect 4/24 GB40; least effect.

Biernacki et al., 1998 (248) (stable asthma)

23

Randomized controlled trial, double-blind crossover

Acupuncture

Sham acupuncture

There was no improvement in aspects of respiratory function measured after acupuncture or sham acupuncture. There was significant improvement in the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire and a parallel reduction in bronchodilators.

Bulbar paralysis after stroke (see also Dysphagia in pseudobulbar paralysis)

Ding, 1996 (249)

120:30

Group comparison with comparable conditions

Acupuncture

Conventional Western medication (troxerutin, piracetam, Cerebrolysin: a brain peptide preparation)

Average recovery time was:
• 91 (75.8%) in test group after 5.6 days of treatment
• 12 (40%) in control group after 12 days of treatment.

Cancer pain

Dang et al., 1995 (230) (stomach carcinoma)

16:16

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Western medication (codeine, pethidine)

Acupuncture treatment had:
• immediate analgesic effect similar to Western medication
• more marked analgesic effect than Western medication after long-term use for 2 months.

Dan et al., 1998 (231)

34:37:42

Group comparison

Body acupuncture or acupuncture plus medication

Medication (analgesic steps recommended by WHO)

An analgesic effect was observed in:
• 50.0% of the medication group
• 73.0% of the acupuncture group
• 92.2% of acupuncture plus medication group.

Cardiac neurosis

Zhou, 1992 (178)

30:30

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture at rényíng (ST9)

Medication (propranolol)

At follow-up I month after 10 days of treatment the therapeutic effect was better in the test group than in the control group.

Cardiopulmonary disease, see Breathlessness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Cardiac neurosis; Coronary heart disease (angina pectoris); Pulmonary heart disease, chronic

Cerebrovascular disorders, see Aphasia due to acute cardiovascular disorders; Bulbar paralysis after stroke; Coma; Craniocerebral injury; Stroke

Chloasma

Luan et al., 1996 (224)

60:30

Randomized controlled trial

Auricular acupuncture plus acupressure

Vitamins C and E

After 3 months of treatment cure was achieved in:
• 53.3% of the test group
• 13.3% of the control group.
The treatment was effective in:
• 95.0% of the treatment group
• 43.3% of the control group.

Cholecystitis, chronic, with acute exacerbation (see also Biliary colic)

Gong et al., 1996 (139)

80:24

Group comparison

Body plus ear acupuncture

Conventional Western medication (unspecified)

Clinical cure (disappearance of symptoms and signs, and marked improvement of gallbladder motor function as shown by ultrasonic examination) was achieved in:
• 92.5% of the test group
• 32.1% of the control group.

Cholelithiasis

Zhao et al., 1979 (138)

522:74

Group comparison

Electric acupuncture plus oral magnesium sulfate

Oral magnesium sulfate

Stones were excreted in:
• 409/522 (78.4%) in the test group
• 20/74 (27.4%) in the control group.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, see Breathlessness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Cocaine dependence, see Dependence, opium, cocaine, heroin

Colour blindness

Cai, 1998 (250)

44:65: 53

Group comparison

Body acupuncture or ear acupressure

No treatment

After 1-3 courses of treatment (7-12 days each course), colour discrimination was improved:
• from 0.24 to 0.46 in acupuncture group
• from 0.27 to 0.52 in ear acupressure group.
There was no improvement in the control group (change from 0.28 to 0.30).

Coma

Frost, 1976 (108)

17:15

Group comparison with similar levels of coma

Acupuncture at shéntíng (GV24) and shu?gôu (GV26)

No acupuncture

A neurological recovery of 50% or more (significant difference) was observed in:
• 59% of the test group
• 20% of the control group.

Competition stress syndrome

Que et al., 1986 (196)

111:102

Randomized controlled trial

Auricular acupressure

Psychotherapy plus placebo drug

The treatment was effective in:
• 92.8% of the test group
• 7.8% of the control group.

Convulsions in infants and young children due to high fever

He et al., 1997 (215)

51:51

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture at hég? (LI4)

Intramuscular phenobarbital

Convulsions stopped 2 min after starting treatment in:
• 98% of the test group
• 51% of the control group.

Coronary heart disease (angina pectoris)

Ballegaard et al., 1986 (180)

13:13

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Sham acupuncture (insertion of needles outside the meridians)

Cardiac work capacity (difference in pressure-rate product (dPRP)) between rest & maximum exercise & maximum PRP during exercise, was measured. No adverse effect was observed. Patients receiving active acupuncture showed significant increase in cardiac work capacity compared to those receiving sham acupuncture.

Ballegaard et al., 1990 (181)

24:25

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Sham acupuncture

There was a median reduction of 50% in anginal attack rate and glyceryl trinitrate consumption in both groups, with no significant difference between the groups. The increase in exercise tolerance and delay of onset of pain was significant in the test group; there were no significant changes in the control group.

Xue et al., 1992 (186)

42:27

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Medication (nifedipine plus isosorbide dinitrate)

Acupuncture was more effective in improving symptoms and ECG and pulse doppler ultrasonocardiography indices.

Mao et al., 1993 (184)

30:30

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture plus conventional medication

Conventional medication (glyceryl trinitrate, aspirin, calcium antagonist)

Improvement in symptoms and ECG, respectively, were observed in:
• 85.7% and 69% of the test group
• 57.1% and 38% of the control group.

Dai et al., 1995 (182)

20:18

Randomized controlled trial

Auricular acupuncture at point heart

Auricular acupuncture at point stomach

Marked relief of angina pectoris and other symptoms, with improvement of ECG & haemorrheological indices was observed in the test group. There was no such effect in the control group.

Cheng, 1995 (183)

50:50

Randomized controlled trial

Auricular acupressure

Conventional medication (glyceryl trinitrate, etc.)

A marked effect (no recurrence of angina during the 4-5 weeks of treatment) was observed in:
• 74% of the test group
• 52% of the control group.

Ma et al., 1997 (251)

30:24

Randomized controlled trial

Body acupuncture plus routine Western medication (aspirin, nitrates and calcium antagonist)

Routine Western medication (aspirin, nitrates and calcium antagonist)

After 10 days of hospitalization and treatment, improvement in angina pectoris and ST-T, respectively, was observed in:
• 85.7% and 69% of the test group
• 58.3% and 33.3% of the control group.
Levels of serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine were higher than normal in both groups but were significantly lowered only in test group after the treatment.

Craniocerebral injury, closed

Ding et al., 1997 (252)

50:50

Group comparison

Body acupuncture

Routine Western medication (unspecified)

After 15 days of treatment, clinical cure (disappearance of the main clinical symptoms and signs, and basic recovery of functions) was observed in: 86% of the test group 56% of the control group.

Deafness, sudden onset

Wang et al., 1998 (218)

50:50

Randomized controlled trial

Body acupuncture plus routine Western treatment (dextran, dexamethasone, etc.)

Routine Western medication (dextran, dexamethasone, etc.)

After 2 weeks of treatment, the effect was highly statistically significant in:
• 90% of the test group
• 70% of the control group.

Defective ejaculation, see Male sexual dysfunction, non-organic

Shui, 1990 (148)

30:30: 40

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Herbal medication or the Goboes and Liu regimens (treatment included sex instruction, electric massage, hormonal therapy and injection of strychnine and galantamine

After 1 month of treatment, the cure rate was:
• 83.3% in the test group
• 56.7% in the herbal medication group
• 12.5% in the control Goboes and Liu regimen group.

Dental pain

Sung et al., 1977 (78) (postoperative)

40

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture plus placebo drug

Sham acupuncture plus placebo drug, sham acupuncture plus codeine, or acupuncture plus codeine

Acupuncture plus placebo drug gave significantly greater pain relief than sham acupuncture plus placebo drug or sham acupuncture plus codeine. Acupuncture plus placebo drug was more effective than acupuncture plus codeine in initial 30 min after surgery; less effective 2-3 h after surgery.

Zheng et al., 1990 (79) (after pulp devitalization)

15:11

Randomized controlled trial

Auricular acupressure

No treatment

After 48 h, there was no pain in:
• 12/15 (80%) in the test group
• 4/11(36%) in the control group.

Lao et al., 1995 (77) (after tooth extraction)

11:8

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Placebo acupuncture

Subjects treated with acupuncture reported a significantly longer period without pain and experienced less intense pain than controls.

Sukandar et al., 1995 (80) (apical periodontitis)

20:20

Randomized controlled trial

Electric acupuncture

Mock electric acupuncture

Analgesic effect lasting 24 h was obtained in:
• 65% of the test group
• 10% of the control group.

Lao et al., 1999 (73) (after oral surgery)

19:20

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Placebo acupuncture

Acupuncture was statistically significantly superior to the placebo in preventing postoperative dental pain. Mean pain-free postoperative time and minutes before requesting pain relief medication, respectively, were:
• 172.9 min and 242.1 min in the test group
• 93.8 min and 166.2 min in the placebo group.

Dependence, alcohol

Bullock et al., 1987 (210)

27:27

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture at specific points

Acupuncture at non-specific points

There was a significant difference between the two groups at the end of the study; patients in the test group expressed less need for alcohol, with fewer drinking episodes.

Bullock et al., 1989 (211)

40:40

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture at specific points

Acupuncture at non-specific points

Significant treatment effects persisted at the end of the 6-month follow-up; more control patients expressed a moderate-strong need for alcohol and had more than twice the number of drinking episodes & admissions to detoxification centres.

Dependence, opium, cocaine and heroin

Margolin et al., 1993 (201) (cocaine)

32 per group

Group comparison (post hoc)

Auricular

Desipramine, amantadine or drug placebo

Abstinence rates during final 2 weeks of 8-week treatment were:
• auricular acupuncture 44%
• desipramine 26%
• amantadine 15%
• drug placebo 13%.

Washburn et al., 1993 (202) (heroin)

100

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Sham acupuncture

Self-reported frequency of heroin use was lower in the test group.

Cai et al., 1998 (200) (heroin, late stage of abstinence)

60:60

Randomized controlled trial

Body acupuncture

Vitamin B1

Reduction of anorexia, spontaneous sweating and insomnia in the late stage of abstinence was greater in test group, and statistically significant.

Bullock et al., 1999 (199) (cocaine)

236

Randomized controlled trial

Auricular acupuncture

Acupuncture at sham ear points or conventional treatment without acupuncture

The data failed to identify significant treatment differences among the various groups.

Dependence, tobacco

Fang, 1983 (204)

33:28

Randomized controlled trial (patients told they were receiving acupuncture for other purposes)

Auricular acupuncture

Body acupuncture

Under a regime of passive abstinence with no suggestion or motivation, auricular acupuncture was superior to body acupuncture in reducing the tobacco consumption by more than half in:
• 70% of the auricular acupuncture group (72% experienced disgust at the taste of tobacco and 15% felt dizzy during smoking)
• 11% of the body acupuncture group.

Clavel et al., 1985 (253)

224:205: 222

Randomized group comparison

Acupuncture

Nicotine gum or minimal intervention (cigarette case with lock controlled by a time switch, which could be regulated at will)

Acupuncture and nicotine gum did not reduce the tendency to relapse after one month but were effective in helping smokers to stop smoking during the first month in:
• 43/224 in the acupuncture group
• 46/205 in the group receiving nicotine gum
• 8/222 in the minimal intervention group.

He et al., 1997 (205)

23:23

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture at points used to assist smoking cessation

Acupuncture at points assumed to have no effect on smoking cessation

Daily cigarette consumption fell during the treatment in both groups, but the reduction was larger in the test group. Serum concentrations of cotinine and thiocyanate were significantly reduced after the treatment period in the test group but not in the control group.

White et al., 1998 (207)

76

Randomized controlled trial

Electric acupuncture at appropriate points in each ear

Sham procedure (auricular acupuncture over the mastoid bone)

There was no significant difference between the two groups in the mean score for reduction of withdrawal symptoms.

Waite et al., 1998 (206)

78

Randomized controlled trial

Electric acupuncture plus self-retained ear seed (a herbal seed used to apply pressure to the point) at an active site

Auricular acupuncture plus self-retained ear seed at a placebo site

The test acupuncture was significantly more effective in helping volunteers to quit smoking than the control treatment. Cessation of smoking at 6 months in:
• 12.5% of the test group
• 0% of the control group.

Depression (see also Depression after stroke)

Luo et al., 1985 (191)

27:20

Randomized controlled trial

Electric acupuncture

Medication (amitriptyline)

There was a similar improvement in the two groups but far fewer side-effects in the test group.

Luo et al., 1988 (192)

133:108

Multicentre, randomized controlled trial

Electric acupuncture

Medication (amitriptyline)

There was a similar improvement in the two groups but a greater effect on anxiety and fewer side-effects in the test group.

Yang et al., 1994 (193)

20:20

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Medication (amitriptyline)

There was a similar improvement in the two groups after 6 weeks.

Luo et al., 1998 (254)

29

Randomized controlled trial

Electric acupuncture plus placebo

Electric acupuncture plus amitriptyline

The therapeutic efficacy was similar in the two groups for depressive disorders. The therapeutic effect for anxiety somatization and cognitive process disturbance was greater and there were fewer side-effects in the test group.

Depression after stroke

Li et al., 1994 (190)

34:34: 33

Randomized controlled trial

“Antidepressive” acupuncture (different selection of points)

Medication (doxepin) plus traditional acupuncture or traditional acupuncture alone

There was a similar improvement in the anti-depressive acupuncture and medication plus traditional acupunture groups; improvement was superior to that in traditional acupuncture group.

Hou et al., 1996 (189)

30:30

Randomized controlled trial with independent assessment

Electric acupuncture at bãihuì (GV20) and yìntáng (EX-HN3)

Traditional manual acupuncture

The results were better in the test group; the difference was significant as assessed by the Hamilton and other scoring methods.

Depressive neurosis

Zhang, 1996 (194)

31 per group

Randomized controlled trial

Laser acupuncture

Conventional antidepressant (doxepin, amitriptyline or aprazolam)

The therapeutic effect was similar in the two groups, somewhat better in the test group for cognitive disturbance. Side-effects occurred in all cases in control group but in none in test group.

Diabetes mellitus, non-insulin-dependent

Latief, 1987 (241)

20:20

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture at sânyînjiâo (SP6)

Acupuncture at 1 Chinese inch (cun) superiolateral to SP6

There was a reduction in fasting blood sugar of:
• 19.2% in the test group
• 4.9% in the control group.

Kang et al., 1995 (240)

12:15: 13:10

Randomized controlled trial

Untimed acupuncture or acupuncture at insulin secretion climax (ISCA) or acupuncture at insulin secretion valley (ICSV)

Conventional Western medication (tolbutamide)

Improvement in fasting blood glucose, 2-h glucose, postprandial blood glucose, 24-h urine glucose, and glucosylated haemoglobin was:
• marked in the ISCA group
• superior in the ISCA group to that in the untimed acupuncture and ISVA groups
• similar in the ISCA group to that of the tolbutamide group.

Diarrhoea, see Diarrhoea in infants and children; Dysentery, acute bacillary; Irritable colon syndrome

Diarrhoea in infants and young children

Li et al., 1997 (213)

380:450

Group comparison

Acupuncture at zúsânl? (ST36) and chángqiáng (GV1)

Medication (gentamicin or haloperidol)

Cure in 1 day was obtained in:
• 82.3% of the test group (the remainder were cured within 3 days)
• 41.3% of the control group.

Yang, 1998 (214)

100:70

Group comparison

Body acupuncture and moxibustion

Medication (antibiotics and vitamins)

Cure was obtained in:
• 98% of test group within 3.43 ± 0.32 days
• 80% of control group within 4.41 ± 0.43 days.

Dysentery, acute bacillary

Qiu et al., 1986 (9)

596:281

Group comparison

Acupuncture

Medication (furazolidone)

Acupuncture relieved symptoms earlier than furazolidone. Stool culture became negative in:
• 92.4% of the test group
• 98.2% of the control group.

Li, 1990 (8)

276:269

Group comparison

Acupuncture

Medication (syntomycin, furazolidone)

Stool culture became negative in all patients after 7 days, but within 7 days in:
• 87.7% of the test group; recurrence rate in 1 year, 2.4%
• 74.2% of the control group; recurrence rate in 1 year, 2.5%.

Yu et al., 1992 (10)

162:164

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Medication (furazolidone)

Both treatments relieved symptoms and signs, with no side-effects. Stool culture became negative in:
• 128 (79%) in the test group by 5.1 days; recurrence at 9-month follow-up in 4 cases
• 143 (87.2%) in the control group by 3.2 days; recurrence at 9-month follow-up in 5 cases.

Dysmenorrhoea, primary

Helms, 1987 (153)

11:11:11: 10

Randomized controlled trial, comparing four groups

Acupuncture

Placebo acupuncture, no acupuncture but conventional treatment, no acupuncture but conventional treatment and control visits to physician

Improvement was observed in:
• 10/11(90.9%) in the real acupuncture group
• 4/11 (36.4%) in the placebo acupuncture group
• 2/11 (18.2%) in the conventional treatment control group
• 1/10 (10%) in the conventional treatment plus visits control group.

Shi et al., 1994 (154)

120:44

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture at sânyînjiâo (SP6)

Medication (a paracetamol-propyphenazone-caffeine combination)

A better and quicker analgesic effect was observed in the test group.

Dysphagia in pseudobulbar paralysis

Liu et al., 1998 (255)

30:30

Randomized controlled trial

Body acupuncture

Logemann functional training of lingual muscles

Cure rates after 15 days were:
• 26 in the test group (average 8.7 days)
• 6 in the control group.

Earache, unexplained

Mekhamer A et al. 1987 (222)

96

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Mock TENS

The response was significantly better following acupuncture than placebo for both 33% and 50% pain-relief criteria.

Encephalitis, see Viral encephalitis in children

Epidemic haemorrhagic fever

Song et al., 1992 (86)

38:32

Randomized controlled trial

Moxibustion

Western medication. (steroid, supportive treatment)

Moxibustion shortened the period of oliguria and accelerated the fall in urine protein and reduction in kidney swelling (ultrasound).

Epigastralgia, acute (in peptic ulcer, acute and chronic gastritis, and gastrospasm)

Xu et al., 1991 (128)

42:31

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture at liángqiû (ST34) and wèishû (BL21)

Conventional medication. (anisodamine)

The treatment was effective in:
• 97.6% of the test group
• 83.9% of the control group.

Yu, 1997 (129)

160:40

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture (manual) at zúsânl? (ST36)

Medication (morphine plus atropine)

A marked effect was observed in:
• 81% of the test group
• 80% of the control group.

Epistaxis, simple (without generalized or local disease)

Lang et al., 1995 (223)

92:42

Randomized controlled trial

Auricular acupuncture with thumb-tack needle

Western medication (carbazochrome salicylate plus vitamin C)

Cure (no recurrence at 3-month follow-up) was observed in:
• 84.8% of the test group
• 28.6% of the control group.

Eye pain due to subconjunctival injection

Shen, 1996 (14)

24:15

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture at bìnào (LI14)

No treatment

Pain mostly disappeared in 0.5-1 min in 22/24 of the test group but persisted for 30-60 min in all of the control patients.

Facial pain (including craniomandibular disorders) (see also Temporomandibular joint dysfunction)

Hansen et al., 1983 (29)

16

Randomized crossover trial

Acupuncture

Sham acupuncture

Pain levels were more significantly reduced following acupuncture than following sham acupuncture.

Johansson et al., 1991 (30)

15 per group

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Occlusal splint or no treatment

Acupuncture was as effective as occlusal splint. At follow-up, subjective dysfunction scores and visual analogue scale assessments were significantly lower in the test group.

List, 1992 (31)

110

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture.

Occlusal splint or no treatment

Symptoms were reduced by acupuncture and occlusal-splint therapy. The control group remained essentially unchanged. Acupuncture gave better short-term subjective results than occlusal splint.

Cai, 1996 (28)

32:36

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture with retention of needles for 1-1.5 h

Acupuncture with retention of needles for 0.5 h

Marked effect (with effective rate after course of treatment of 14 sessions):
• 59.3% of test group after 5 sessions of treatment; overall effective rate, 93.7%
• 25% of the control group after 11 sessions on average; overall effective rate, 77.8%.

Facial spasm

Liu, 1996 (107)

33:33

Randomized controlled trial

Wrist-ankle acupuncture

Body acupuncture

Elimination of involuntary twitching with no recurrence at 6-month follow-up in:
• 69.7% of the test group
• 39.4% of the control group.

Female urethral syndrome

Zheng et al., 1997 (151)

103:50

Randomized controlled trial

Body acupuncture and moxibustion.

Medication (Urgenin: herbal extract containing Serenoa serrulata, effective for irritable bladder; used because antibiotics had proved ineffective in all patients)

Effective rates after 1-2 months of treatment were:
• 88.3% in the test group
• 28% in the control group.

Wang et al., 1998 (150) (from same institute as study above)

56:37

Randomized controlled trial

Body acupuncture and moxibustion

Medication. (Urgenin; used because antibiotics had proved ineffective)

Effective rates after 1-2 months of treatment were:
• 87.5% in the test group (urodynamic study also showed the beneficial effect of acupuncture)
• 29.7% in the control group.

Fever, see Convulsions in infants and young children due to high fever; Tonsillitis, acute

Fibromyalgia

Deluze et al.,1992 (40)

36:34

Randomized controlled trial with independent assessment

Acupuncture

Sham acupuncture

There was a significant difference between the two groups with improvement in:
• 7 of the 8 parameters in the test group
• none of the parameters in the control group.

Gastrointestinal spasm

Shi et al., 1995 (130)

100:100

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Atropine

Total relief of pain in 30 min was observed in:
• 98 in the test group
• 71 in the control group.

Gastrokinetic disturbance

Zhang et al., 1996 (131)

104:41

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Conventional medication (domperidone)

Effective rates (no significant difference between the two groups) were:
• 95.2% in the test group
• 90.2% in the control group.

Gouty arthritis

Li et al., 1993 (60)

23:19

Randomized controlled trial

Blood-pricking acupuncture

Conventional medication (allopurinol)

The test group showed more marked improvement than the control group. Reduction in blood and urine uric acid was similar in the two groups.

Pan, 1997 (61)

39:20

Randomized controlled trial

Plum-blossom needling plus cupping

Medication (allopurinol)

After 6 weeks of treatment, marked improvement was observed in:
• 100% of the test group
• 65% of the control group.

Haemorrhagic fever, see Epidemic haemorrhagic fever

Hay fever, see Allergic rhinitis (including hay fever)

Headache

Ahonen et al., 1983 (17) (myogenic)

12:10

Group comparison

Acupuncture

Physiotherapy

Significant changes in pain and electromyogram in both groups, with 4 sessions of acupuncture equivalent to 8 sessions of physiotherapy.

Loh et al., 1984 (23) (migraine and tension)

48

Crossover (incomplete)

Acupuncture

Standard drug therapy (mainly propranolol)

Benefit was observed in:
• 59% of the test group; 39% with marked improvement
• 25% of the control group; 11% with marked improvement.

Dowson et al., 1985 (20) (migraine)

25:23

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Mock TENS

33% severity improvement was observed in:
• 56% (14/25) of the acupuncture group
• 30% (7/23) of the control group.
Headache frequency was reduced in:
• 44% (11/25) of the acupuncture group
• 57% (13/23) of the control group.

Doerr-Proske et al., 1985 (19) (migraine)

10 per group

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Psychological biobehavioural treatment or no treatment (on waiting list)

Over 3 months of treatment, there was a significant reduction of headache frequency and intensity in the acupuncture and psychological biobehavioural groups. There was almost no change in those on the waiting list.

Vincent, 1989 (25) (migraine)

15:15

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Sham acupuncture

There was a significant difference between two groups: the test group experienced sustained improvement over 1 year after only 6 treatments in a 6-week period.

Tavola et al., 1992 (24) (tension)

15:15

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Sham acupuncture

The mean decreases in headache episodes, headache index and analgesic intake, respectively were:
• 44.3%, 58.3% and 57.7% in the test group
• 21.4%, 27.8% and 21.7% in the control group.

Kubiena et al., 1992 (21) (migraine)

15:15

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Placebo acupuncture

The test group showed better results than the control group (reduction in frequency of attacks, intensity of pain and amount of medication taken).

Xu et al., 1993 (27) (migraine)

50:50

Randomized group comparison

Manual acupuncture

Electric acupuncture

There was an Immediate analgesic effect in:
• 80% of the test group
• 48% of the control group.

Weinschütz et al., 1994 (26) (migraine)

20:20

Controlled trial, comparable pretreatment conditions

Acupuncture at classical points

Acupuncture at points 1-2 cm from those used in test group

Acupuncture at classical points yielded a significant therapeutic effect superior to the control acupuncture.

Chen et al., 1997 (18) (migraine)

45:30

Group comparison

Penetrating acupuncture

Nimodipine

After 20 days of treatment, headache disappeared with no recurrence after 6 months of follow-up in:
• 30/45 in the test group
• 16/30 in the control group.

Liu et al., 1997 (22) (migraine)

30:34

Randomized controlled trial

Scalp acupuncture

Flunarizine

Headache was relieved after 1 week treatment in:
• 73.3% of the test group
• 38.2% of the control group.

Heart disease, see Coronary heart disease (angina pectoris); Pulmonary heart disease, chronic

Hepatitis B virus carrier

Wang et al., 1991 (85)

70:42

Group comparison

Acupuncture plus moxibustion

Herbal medication (Herba Cymbopogonis)

After 3 months of treatment, carrier status became negative in:
• 30% of the test group
• 2.4% of the control group.
Antibodies to hepatitis B e core antigen were produced in:
• 50% of the test group
• 6.25% of the control group.

Heroin dependence, see Dependence, opium, cocaine, heroin

Herpes zoster (human (alpha) herpesvirus 3) (see also Neuralgia, post-herpetic)

Chen et al., 1994 (225)

33:32

Randomized controlled trial

Laser acupuncture

Polyinosinic acid

Disappearance of pain and formation of scabs, respectively, occurred after:
• 1.48 and 5.76 days of laser acupuncture
• 10.5 and 10.4 days of medication.

Hyperlipaemia

Wang, 1998 (239)

40:25

Group comparison

Acupoint injection plus oral administration of simvastatin

Oral administration of simvastatin

Significant improvement after 30 days of treatment in:
• 36/40 (90%) in the test group
• 11/25 (44%) in the control group.

Hypertension, essential

Iurenev et al., 1988 (173)

25:38

Group comparison

Acupuncture

Conventional medication (rescinnamine)

The therapeutic efficacy was similar in the two groups.

Zhou et al., 1990 (176)

135:68: 71

Group comparison

Auricular acupressure

Medication (nifedipine plus propranolol) or placebo drug

There was a similar improvement with acupressure and medication. Both were superior to placebo.

Yu et al., 1991 (175)

280:51

Group comparison

Auricular acupressure

Conventional medication (reserpine)

There was a similar improvement in the two groups. There were no side-effects in the test group.

Wu et al., 1997 (174)

82:118

Group comparison

Scalp acupuncture

Conventional medication (nifedipine)

The effects were similar, with no statistically significant difference, in the two groups:
• marked response in 47.6%, partial response in 50% of the test group
• marked response in 57.6%, partial response in 40.7% of the control group.

Dan, 1998 (172)

26:26

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Conventional medication (nifedipine)

Monitoring of ambulatory blood pressure showed a similar reduction in 24-h systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the two groups. The reduction in myocardial oxygen consumption index was greater in the test group.

Hypo-ovarianism

Ma et al., 1997 (256)

30:30

Randomized controlled trial

Body acupuncture (manual) plus cupping

Medication (diethylstilbestrol)

Marked improvement was observed in:
• 43/56 (76.8%) in the test group (hormonal assay showed a further long-term effect after treatment)
• 26/55 (47.3%) in the diethylstilbestrol group.

Hypophrenia

Tian et al., 1996 (254)

100:25

Randomized controlled trial

Body plus ear acupuncture plus application of herbal extract to acupoints

No treatment

Intelligence quotient increased:
• from 53.97 to 65.07 (11.10 ± 2.96) in the test group
• from 53.87 to 55.12 in the control group.
Social adaptability behaviour increased:
• from 7.51 to 8.89 (1.38 ± 0.31) in test group
• from 7.57 to 7.82 in the control group.

Hypotension, primary

Guo, 1992 (170)

50:50

Randomized controlled trial

Auricular acupressure

Herbal tonics

After 10 days of treatment, blood pressure was restored to normal in:
• 45 in the study group (no improvement in 1)
• 15 in the control group (no improvement in 25).

Yu et al., 1998 (171)

180:60

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture at bãihuì (GV20) plus herbal medication (Bu Zhong Yi Qi Tang, a formula that is routinely used in herbal medicine for the treatment of hypotension)

Herbal medication (Bu Zhong Yi Qi Tang)

A therapeutic effect was observed after 0.5-1 month of treatment in:
• 172/180 (95.5%) in the test group
• 46/60 (76.7%) in the control group.

Induction of labour

Yu et al., 1981 (161)

10:10:8

Randomized group comparison

Acupuncture at distant points or local points

Acupuncture at distant plus local points

Acupuncture at distant points was superior to that at local points in strengthening uterine contractions for induction of labour. Combined use of distant & local points was best technique.

Lin et al., 1992 (159)

62:48

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture at hég? (LI4) and sânyînjiâo (SP6)

Oxytocin intravenous drip

Similar results were obtained in the two groups, but uterine contractions were less frequent and uterine motility was less marked in the test group.

Ma et al., 1995 (160)

31:29: 15:26

Randomized controlled trial

(1) Ear acupuncture at shénmén, (2) Body acupuncture at sânyînjiâo (SP6) or (3) Body acupuncture at yánglíngquán (GB34)

(4) No treatment

The duration of labour in the four groups was:
• (1) 4.47 ± 0.76 h
• (2) 6.80 ± 1.04 h
• (3) 9.79 ± 2.45 h
• (4) 10.20 ± 2.04h.

Infertility, see Defective ejaculation; Hypo-ovarianism; Infertility due to inflammatory obstruction of fallopian tube; Male sexual dysfunction, non-organic

Infertility due to inflammatory obstruction of fallopian tube

Ji et al., 1996 (158)

64:36:30

Randomized controlled trial

Manual acupuncture plus electric acupuncture plus moxibustion

Herbal medication or conventional Western medication (intrauterine injection of gentamicin, chymotrypsin and dexamethasone)

Results showed that the fallopian tube obstruction was totally removed in:
• 81.3% of the test group; in a 2-year follow-up, the pregnancy rate was 75%
• 55.6% and 56.7% of the control groups, respectively; in a 2-years follow-up, the pregnancy rates were 52.7% and 46.7%.

Insomnia

Zhang, 1993 (110)

60 per group

Group comparison

Auricular acupressure

Medication (diazepam plus chlorohydrate)

After 1 month of treatment, sleep was restored to normal or markedly improved in:
• 59/60 in the test group
• 20/60 in the control group.

Luo et al., 1993 (109)

60 per group

Randomized controlled trial

Auricular acupressure

Medication (phenobarbital, methaqualone or meprobamate)

After the course of treatment, sleep improved in:
• 96.7% of the test group
• 35.0% of the control group.

Irritable bladder, see Female urethral syndrome

Irritable colon syndrome

Wu et al., 1996 (133)

41:40

Randomized controlled trial

Moxibustion

Western medication

After 2.5-3 months of treatment, a therapeutic effect was observed in:
• 92.7% of test group (improvement in 53.7%)
• 62.5% of control group (improvement in 37.5%).

Knee pain

Maruno, 1976 (56) (arthrosis)

26:26

Randomized controlled trial

Electric acupuncture

Manual acupuncture

Good results (complete alleviation of pain) were observed in:
• 17/26 in the test group (average no. of treatments required, 6)
• 11/26 in the control group (average no. of treatments required, 10).

Christensen et al., 1992 (54) (osteoarthritis)

14:15

Randomized controlled trial, independent assessment

Acupuncture

No treatment (waiting for surgery)

Reduction in pain, analgesic consumption and objective measurements were significantly greater in the test group.

Berman et al., 1999 (58) (osteoarthritis)

73

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Standard care (weight loss, physical and occupational therapy, medication)

Improvement according to the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index and Lequesne indices was superior in test group.

Labour, see Induction of labour; Labour pain

Labour pain

Zhang et al., 1995 (82)

150:150

Randomized controlled trial with independent assessment

Body plus ear acupuncture

No treatment

Acupuncture yielded a good analgesic effect and expedited the opening of the uterine ostium.

Lactation deficiency

Chandra et al., 1995 (169)

15:15

Randomized controlled trial

Electric acupuncture

No acupuncture

Lactation increased by:
• 92% in the test group
• 30.9% in the control group.
The difference was statistically significant.

Leukopenia

Chen et al., 1991 (141) (chemotherapy-induced)

121:117: 34

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture or moxibustion

Medication (batilol plus cysteine phenylacetate)

Effective rates after 9 days of treatment were:
• 88.4% in the acupuncture group
• 91.5% in the moxibustion group
• 38.2% in the medication group.

Chen et al., 1990 (140) (chemotherapy-induced)

57:34

Randomized controlled trial

Moxibustion

Medication (batilol plus cysteine-phenylacetate)

Effective rates after 9 days of treatment were:
• 89.5% in the test group
• 38.2% in the control group.

Yin et al., 1990 (143) (benzene-induced)

30:27

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Medication (cysteine-phenylacetate)

Effective rates after 6 weeks of treatment were:
• 83.3% in the test group
• 53.4% in the control group.

Yin et al., 1992 (144) (benzene-induced)

30:25

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Medication (rubidate)

Acupuncture was superior to rubidate in improving symptoms and increasing leukocyte count; effective rates were:
• 91% in the test group
• 68% in the control group.

Wang, 1997 (142) (chemotherapy-induced)

49:34

Randomized controlled trial

Moxibustion

Medication (batilol plus cysteine-phenylacetate)

Effective rates were:
• 82% in the test group
• 50% in the control group.

Low back pain (see also Sciatica; Spine pain, acute)

Gunn et al., 1980 (46)

29:27

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Standard therapy (physical therapy, remedial exercises, etc.)

Return to original or equivalent work or to lighter work, respectively, was possible in:
• 18/29 and 10/29 in the test group
• 4/27 and 14/27 in the control group.

Coan et al., 1980 (45)

25:25

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture and electric acupuncture

No treatment (waiting list)

Improvement was observed in:
• 19/25 in the test group
• 5/25 in the control group.

Mendelson et al., 1983 (49)

95

Randomized single-blind crossover with independent assessment

Acupuncture

Lidocaine injection plus sham acupuncture

Improvement was observed in:
• 26 in the test group
• 22 in the control group.

MacDonald et al., 1983 (48)

8:9

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture and electric acupuncture

Mock TENS

Combined average reduction (pain score, activity pain, physical signs) was:
• 71.4% in the acupuncture group
• 21.4% in the control group.

Lehmann et al., 1986 (47)

17:18:18

Randomized controlled trial

Electric acupuncture

TENS or mock TENS

There was a significantly greater gain in various measures in the test group during a 3-week in-patient treatment period and at 6-month follow-up.

Male sexual dysfunction, non-organic (see also Defective ejaculation)

Aydin et al., 1997 (147)

15:16:29

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Hypnosis or placebo

Success rates were:
• 60% in the acupuncture group
• 75% in the group treated with hypnotic suggestion
• 43-47% in the placebo group.

Malposition of fetus, correction of

Qin et al., 1989 (167)

100:40

Group comparison

Auricular acupressure

Knee-chest position

Success rates were:
• 92.9% in the test group
• 67.5% in the control group.

Li et al., 1990 (165)

27:27:20

Group comparison

Moxibustion at zúlínqì (GB41)

Moxibustion at zhìyîn (BL67) (not traditionally used for fetal transposition) or at a non-classical point (located 3 cm below the head of the fibula)

After 1 week of treatment, successful transposition occurred in:
• 51.9% of the test group
• 22.2% and 15%, respectively, in the control groups.

Li et al., 1996 (166)

48:31

Group comparison

Electric acupuncture at zhìyîn (BL67)

No treatment

Efficacy was markedly superior in the test group.

Cardini et al., 1998 (164)

130:130

Randomized controlled trial

Moxibustion at zhìyîn (BL67)

Routine care but no intervention for breech presentation

Among primigravidas with breech presentation during the 33rd week of gestation, moxibustion for 1-2 weeks increased fetal activity during the treatment period and resulted in cephalic presentation after treatment period & at delivery.

Ménière disease

Zhang et al., 1983 (219)

33:32

Randomized controlled trial with partial crossover

Acupuncture

Conventional Western medication (betahistine, nicotinic acid, vitamin B6, cinnarizine)

After 15 days of treatment, the syndrome was relieved in:
• 25 in the test group (ameliorated in 1), with relief usually occurring immediately after treatment
• 16 in the control group (ameliorated in 2).
Of the 7 unaffected acupuncture patients, 5 returned to receive medication; all remained unimproved. Of the 14 unaffected control patients, 6 returned to receive acupuncture; 2 were cured and 1 improved. Effective rates were:
• 74.4% in 39 courses of acupuncture treatment
• 48.6% in 37 courses of medication.

Migraine, see Headache

Morning sickness (see also Nausea and vomiting)

Dundee et al., 1988 (162)

119:112: 119

Randomized controlled trial

Acupressure at nèiguân (PC6) or sham acupressure (a point near right elbow)

No treatment

Troublesome sickness was significantly less in the acupressure (23/119) and sham acupressure (41/112) groups than in the control group (67/119).

De Aloysio et al., 1992 (258)

66

Randomized controlled trial

Acupressure at nèiguân (PC6)

Sham acupressure

Effective rates were:
• 60% in the test group
• 30% in the control group.

Bayreuther et al., 1994 (259)

23

Randomized single-blind crossover with independent assessment

Acupressure at nèiguân (PC6)

Sham acupressure

Effective rates were:
• 69% in the test group
• 31% in the control group.

Fan, 1995 (163)

151:151

Randomized group comparison

Moxibustion

Herbal medication

Cure rates after 1 week of treatment were:
• 96.7% in the test group
• 58.9% in the control group.

Nausea and vomiting (see also Adverse reactions to radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy; Morning sickness)

Dundee et al., 1986 (260) (peri- and postoperative)

25 per group

Group comparison

(1) Acupuncture plus meptazinol, (2) Acupuncture plus nalbuphine

(3) Meptazinol (4) Sham acupuncture plus nalbuphine (5) Nalbuphine

Vomiting in group (1) was half that in group (3). There was a significantly lower incidence of emetic episodes in the acupuncture groups (1) and (2) than in the control groups (3), (4) and (5). There were no differences between the control groups (3), (4) and (5).

Dundee et al., 1987 (233) (cisplatin-associated)

10

Randomized crossover trial

Electric acupuncture at nèiguân (PC6)

Electric acupuncture at “dummy” point

Sickness was significantly lower in the test group.

Ghaly et al., 1987 261) (postoperative)

31:31

Group comparison

Acupuncture plus electric acupuncture

Medication (cyclizine)

Acupuncture and electric acupuncture were as effective as medication.

Weightman et al., 1987 (262) (postoperative)

46

Double-blind randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture at nèiguân (PC6)

No acupuncture

Acupuncture performed during surgery under anaesthesia did not lead to a significant reduction in nausea or vomiting after surgery.

Dundee et al., 1989 (263) (chemotherapy-related)

20

Group comparison

Acupuncture at nèiguân (PC6)

Sham acupuncture

Effective rates were:
• 90% in the test group
• 10% in the control group.

Barsoum et al., 1990 (264) (postoperative)

162

Randomized controlled trial

Acupressure at nèiguân (PC6) by using bands (with pressure button)

Placebo bands (without pressure button) or injection of prochlorperazine

The severity of nausea was significantly reduced in the test group compared with the two control groups.

Ho et al., 1990 (265) (postoperative)

25 per group

Group comparison

Electric acupuncture

Medication (intravenous prochlorperazine 5 mg) or TENS or no treatment

Emesis episodes were observed in:
• 3/25 in the electric acupuncture group
• 3/25 in the medication group
• 9/25 in the TENS group
• 11/25 in the untreated group.

Ho et al., 1996 (266) (postoperative)

60

Randomized double-blind controlled trial

Acupressure bands (with pressure button)

Placebo bands (without pressure button)

Incidence of nausea and of vomiting, respectively was:
• 3% and 0% in the test group
• 43% and 27% in the control group.

Andrzejowski et al., 1996 (267) (postoperative)

36

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture with semipermanent needles

Placebo with needles inserted into sham points

Semipermanent acupuncture did not reduce the overall incidence of nausea and vomiting after abdominal hysterectomy but did reduce the severity of nausea in the second 24-h period and had a greater effect on patients who had nausea & vomiting after a previous anaesthetic.

McConaghy et al., 1996 (268) (postoperative)

30:50

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture at nèiguân (PC6)

Acupuncture at sham points

Patients were treated with acupuncture with manual stimulation for 4 min after developing post-operative nausea & vomiting lasting more than 10 min:
• 53% of patients in the test group did not require further antiemetic treatment
• all patients in the control group required further antiemetic treatment.

Schwager et al., 1996 (269) (postoperative)

84

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Placebo (no needle stimulation)

There was no statistically significant difference in total postoperative vomiting between the two groups.

Liu et al., 1997 (270) (cisplatin-associated)

184: 161:25: 25:23: 22:70

Randomized group comparison

Magnetic plate at nèiguân (PC6): (1) 120 mT, (2) 60 mT or (3) 2000 mT

(4) 120 mT magnetic plate at zúsânl? (ST36), (5) iron plate at nèiguân (PC6), (6) steel bead at nèiguân (PC6) or (7) medication (unspecified)

Total effective rates were significantly higher in the first two test groups):
• (1) 92.4%
• (2) 89.4%
• other group rates ranged from 47.2% (7) to 0%.

Al-Sadi et al., 1997 (271) (postoperative)

81

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Placebo (no needle stimulation)

The use of acupuncture reduced the incidence of postoperative nausea or vomiting in hospital from 65% to 35% (for day cases) and from 69% to 31% (after discharge).

Stein et al., 1997 (272) (postoperative)

75

Randomized double-blind controlled trial

Acupressure bands plus intravenous saline

Placebo bands plus intravenous metoclopramide or placebo bands plus intravenous saline

Patients who received either acupressure or placebo bands plus metoclopramide prior to initiation of spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section experienced much less nausea than patients in the placebo band plus saline group.

Schlager et al., 1998 (273) (postoperative)

40:20

Randomized double-blind controlled trial

Laser stimulation of nèiguân (PC6)

Placebo laser

The incidence of vomiting after strabismus surgery was significantly different for
• 25% in the test group
• 85% in the control group.

Chu et al., 1998 (274) (postoperative)

34:31

Randomized controlled trial assessed by evaluator blind to treatment

Acupressure using non-invasive vital point needleless acuplaster (Koa, Japan)

Placebo acupressure

The overall incidence of vomiting in a 24-h period after strabismus surgery was:
• 29.4% in the test group
• 64.5% in the control group.

Alkaissi et al., 1999 (275) (postoperative)

20:20: 20

Randomized controlled trial

Acupressure with wrist band

Placebo with or without wrist band

Nausea decreased after 24 h in all groups but vomiting and need of relief antiemetic was reduced only in the test group.

Shenkman et al., 1999 (276) (postoperative)

100

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture plus acupressure

Acupuncture at sham points

Perioperative acupressure and acupuncture did not diminish emesis in children following tonsillectomy.

Neck pain

Coan et al., 1982 (35)

15:15

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture plus electric acupuncture

No treatment (waiting list)

Mean pain scores were reduced by:
• 40% in the test group; improvement in 12/15
• 2% in the control group; improvement in 2/15.

Loy, 1983 (36)

26:27

Randomized controlled trial

Electric acupuncture

Physiotherapy

Improvement was observed in:
• 67.4% of the test group at 3 weeks, 87.2% at 6 weeks
• 51.3% of the control group at 3 weeks, 53.9% at 6 weeks.

Petrie et al., 1986 (37)

13:12

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Mock TENS

At 1-month follow-up, daily pill count and disability scores, respectively:
• decreased by 23.5% and 24.6% in the test group
• increased by 8.4% and 8.4% in control group.

David et al., 1998 (34)

35:35

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Physiotherapy

Both groups improved in respect of pain and range of movement of neck. Acupuncture was slightly more effective in patients who had higher baseline pain scores.

Birch et al., 1998 (33)

46

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture at specific sites relevant for neck pain or acupuncture at specific sites not relevant for neck pain

Nonsteroid anti-inflammatory medication

Relevant acupuncture contributed to modest pain reduction in persons with myofascial neck pain. The relevant acupuncture group had significantly greater pre- and post-treatment differences in pain than the non-relevant acupuncture and medication groups.

Neuralgia, post-herpetic

Lewith et al., 1983 (103)

30:32

Randomized controlled trial

Auricular plus body acupuncture

Placebo (mock TENS)

There were no differences in the pain recorded in the two groups during or after treatment. There was a significant improvement in pain at the end of treatment in 7 patients of the placebo group and 7 patients of the acupuncture group.

Sukandar et al., 1995 (104)

7:7

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture at jiáj? (EX-B2) on affected side plus amitriptyline-trifluoperazine combo (amitriptyline 5 mg + trifluoperazine 0.5 mg per tablet), one tablet twice a day

Acupuncture at jiáj? (EX-B2) on contralateral side plus an amitriptyline-trifluoperazine combination

There was a significant difference in analgesia between the test and control groups. Analgesia was excellent in:
• all patients in the test group after 6 sessions
• none of the patients in the control group.

Neurodermatitis

Huang et al., 1998 (227)

60:60

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture with seven-star needles

Conventional local treatment

Cure rates were:
• 100% in the test group
• 16.7% in the control group.

Neuropathic bladder in spinal cord injury

Cheng et al., 1998 (277)

40:40

Controlled trial

Electric acupuncture

Conventional bladder-training programme

Times taken to achieve balanced voiding were:
• 57.1 ± 22.6 days in the test group
• 85.2 ± 27.4 days in the control group.
The difference was statistically significant.

Obesity (see also Simple obesity in children)

Richards et al., 1998 (238)

60

Randomized controlled trial

Auricular acupuncture

Sham acupuncture

Suppression of appetite was noticed in:
• 95% of the test group
• 0% of the control group.

Opium dependence, see Dependence, opium, cocaine, heroin

Osteoarthritis

Junnila, 1982 (55)

16:16

Group comparison (sequential)

Acupuncture

Medication (piroxicam)

Pain was relieved by:
• 61% 1 month after a series of acupuncture treatments; no side-effects
• 32% after 4 months of piroxicam therapy; itching of the skin, intestinal bleeding, or tiredness occurred in 19%.

Pain, see Abdominal pain in acute gastroenteritis; Biliary colic; Cancer pain; Dental pain; Dysmenorrhoea, primary; Earache; Epigastralgia, acute; Eye pain due to subconjunctival injection; Facial pain (including craniomandibular disorders); Gastrointestinal spasm; Headache; Knee pain; Labour pain; Low back pain; Neck pain; Neuralgia, post-herpetic; Osteoarthritis; Pain due to endoscopic examination; Pain in thromboangiitis obliterans; Periarthritis of shoulder; Plantar pain due to fasciitis; Postoperative pain; Radicular and pseudoradicular pain syndromes; Renal colic; Sciatica; Sore throat; Spine pain, acute; Sprain; Stiff neck; Tennis elbow

Pain due to endoscopic examination

Wang et al., 1992 (135) (colonoscopy)

100:100

Group comparison

Acupuncture

Standard medication (scopolamine butylbromide, pethidine)

Analgesia was similar in the two groups but there were significantly fewer side-effects in the test group.

Wang et al., 1997 (136) (colonoscopy)

30:29

Randomized controlled trial

Electric acupuncture at zúsânl? (ST36) and shàngjùxû (ST37)

Pethidine analgesia

Analgesia was similar in the two groups, but there were fewer side-effects in the test group.

Pain in thromboangiitis obliterans

Qiu, 1997 (16)

60:30

Group comparison

Body acupuncture (manual)

Medication (intramuscular bucinnazine; also known as bucinperazine)

Effective rates were:
• 93.4% in the test group; pain relief started 2-10 min after needling and lasted for 5.6 h
• 56.7% in the control group; pain relief started 15-25 min after injection and lasted for 3.1h.

Periarthritis of shoulder

Kinoshita, 1973 (38)

15:15

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture at specific & basic points

Acupuncture at basic points alone

The therapeutic effect was superior in the test group; the difference was significant.

Shao, 1994 (39)

62:62

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture at èrjiân (LI2)

Acupuncture at traditional points

Cure rates were:
• 66.1% in the test group after 2.2 treatments
• 31.7% in control groups after 8.2 treatments.

Pertussis, see Whooping cough (pertussis)

Plantar pain due to fasciitis

Karen et al., 1991 (41)

15 per group

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Sham acupuncture or conventional sports therapy

True acupuncture produced greater improvement in pain records than conventional sports therapy at the end of the treatment period (4 weeks) and at the end of the follow-up period (3 weeks). There was also a statistically significant difference between true and sham acupuncture.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (Stein-Leventhal syndrome)

Ma et al., 1996 (245)

50:48

Randomized controlled trial

Manual acupuncture plus electric acupuncture plus moxibustion

Conventional Western medication (clomifene)

Clinical cure (assessment of clinical symptoms, ultrasonic examination and radioimmunoassay of sex hormones) was observed in:
• 94% of the test group
• 62.5% of the control group.

Postextubation in children

Lee et al., 1998 (15)

38:38

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture (blood-letting at shàoshâng (LU11) at the end of operation)

No acupuncture

If laryngospasm developed, patients were immediately given acupuncture at shàoshâng (LU11) or zhôngf? (LU1). The laryngospasm was relieved within 1 min in all patients. The incidence of laryngospasm occurring after tracheal extubation in children was:
• 5.3% in the test group
• 23.7% in the control group.

Postoperative symptoms, closed craniocerebral injury

Ding et al., 1997 (252)

50:50

Randomized controlled trial

Conventional Western medication plus acupuncture

Conventional Western medication (no further details available)

Clinical cure in was observed in:
• 13 in the test group; marked improvement in 30; cure and improvement rate, 86%
• 7 in the control group; marked improvement in 21; cure and improvement rate, 56%.

Postoperative convalescence

Xu, 1998 (101) (hemiplegia after meningioma removal)

15:15

Group comparison

Body acupuncture

Routine medical treatment (intravenous piracetam)

Improvement of muscular strength and activities after 10 days of treatment was observed in:
• 14 in the test group
• 8 in the control group.

Postoperative pain

Christensen et al., 1989 (72) (after lower abdominal surgery)

10:10

Randomized controlled trial

Electric acupuncture

No treatment

The pethidine requirements of each patient were recorded. The quantity of pethidine consumed by the test group was half that consumed by the control group.

Wang et al., 1990 (76) (after tonsillectomy)

33:33

Group comparison

Acupuncture

Medication (penicillin plus Dobell gargle)

Alleviation of pain, reduction in salivation and speed of wound healing were superior in the test group.

Lü et al., 1993 (74) (after anal surgery)

62:30

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Bucinnazine

A marked analgesic effect was obtained in:
• 77% of the test group
• 27% of the control group.

Tsibuliak et al., 1995 (75) (various)

229:91: 229

Group comparison

Acupuncture

Electric stimulation or narcotic analgesics (omnopon (a Chinese opium alkaloid), trimeperidine)

Although less effective than narcotic analgesics, acupuncture provided adequate analgesia in 50% of patients, & noticeably alleviated severity of postoperative complications (nausea, vomiting, retention of urine, intestinal paresis, impaired drainage function of bronchi).

Felhendler et al., 1996 (278) (after knee arthroscopy)

40

Randomized controlled trial

Acupressure (firm pressure across classical acupoints)

Placebo (light pressure in the same area)

60 min and 24 h after treatment, pain scores on a visual analogue scale were lower in the test group.

Chen et al., 1998 (71) (after abdominal hysterectomy or myomectomy)

25 per group

Randomized controlled trial

TENS at zúsânl? (ST36) or dermatomal TENS at the level of the surgical incision

Nonacupoint TENS or sham TENS (no electric current)

Peri-incisional dermatomal TENS and TENS at zusanli were equally effective in decreasing postoperative opioid analgesic requirement and in reducing opioid-related side effects. Both of these treatments were more effective than the nonacupoint or sham TENS.

Premenstrual syndrome

Li et al., 1992 (155)

108:108

Randomized group comparison

Acupuncture

Herbal medication

Total relief of symptoms with no recurrence in 6 months of follow-up was observed in:
91.7% of the test group
63% of the control group.

Prostatitis, chronic

Luo et al., 1994 (149)

100:81

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture at zhìbiân (BL54) and sânyînjiâo (SP6)

Medication (oral sulfamethoxazole)

Relief of symptoms and improvement in sexual function were superior in the test group.

Pruritus, experimentally induced

Lunderberg et al., 1987 (226)

10

Randomized crossover trial

Manual or electric acupuncture

Placebo acupuncture (superficial insertion of needle with no specific sensation)

Acupuncture and electric acupuncture reduced subjective itch intensity more effectively than placebo acupuncture. The difference was significant. The results suggest that the two test procedures could be tried in clinical conditions associated with pruritus.

Pulmonary heart disease, chronic

Zou et al., 1998 (279)

30:29

Randomized controlled trial

Ginger moxibustion plus acupoint injection

Routine Western treatment (oxygen inhalation, antibiotics and bronchodilators)

After 1.5-2 months of treatment, improvement was observed in:
• 27/30 (90%) of the test group; in 1-year follow-up, acute respiratory infection occurred in 7
• 12/29 (41.4%) of the control group; in 1-year follow-up, acute respiratory infection occurred in 26.

Radicular and pseudoradicular pain syndromes

Kreczi et al., 1986 (57)

21

Randomized single-blind crossover trial

Laser acupuncture

Mock laser acupuncture

Laser acupuncture was more effective than placebo in 20 out of 21 patients.

Raynaud syndrome, primary

Appiah et al., 1997 (244)

17:16

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

No treatment

Mean duration of the capillary flowstop reaction induced by local cooling test decreased from 71 s to 24 s (week 1 compared to week 12, P = 0.001) in test group. Changes in control group weren’t significant. Authors concluded that Chinese acupuncture is a reasonable alternative in treating patients with primary Raynaud syndrome. There was a significant decrease in the frequency of attacks by: 63% in the test group and 27% in the control group.

Recurrent lower urinary-tract infection

Aune et al., 1998 (152)

67

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Sham acupuncture or no treatment

Proportions remaining free of lower urinary-tract infection during 6-month observation period were:
• 85% in the acupuncture group
• 58% in the sham acupuncture group
• 36% in the untreated group.

Reflex sympathetic dystrophy

Kho, 1995 (280)

28

Double-blind placebo-controlled trial

Acupuncture

Sham acupuncture

Acupuncture was beneficial.

Renal colic

Lee et al., 1992 (65)

22:16

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Medication (injection of a metamizole-camylofin combination)

Both groups experienced a significant decrease in pain levels, with the acupuncture group improving slightly more. Side-effects occurred in:
• 0/22 in the test group
• 7/16 in the control group.

Zhang et al., 1992 (7)

126:118

Group comparison

Acupuncture

Medication (injection of atropine plus pethidine)

An analgesic effect was observed in:
• 99.2% of the test group
• 71.2% of the control group.

Li et al., 1993 (66)

25:27

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Medication (injection of atropine plus promethazine and bucinnazine)

Relief of pain was observed in:
• all patients in the test group in 25 min on average
• 90% of the patients in the control group in 50 min.

Retention of urine, traumatic

Pan et al., 1996 (146)

76:32

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Medication (intramuscular neostigmine bromide)

The therapeutic effect of acupuncture was markedly superior to that of neostigmine injection.

Retinopathy, central serous

Yu et al., 1997 (281)

83:135

Group comparison

Acupuncture (manual)

Medication (rutoside, vitamin C, troxerutin)

Cure rates were:
• 46/86 (49.5%) eyes in test group; average duration of treatment required, 50.6 days
• 52/146 (35.6%) eyes in control group; average duration of treatment required, 63.6 days.

Rheumatoid arthritis

Man et al., 1974 (4)

10:10

Group comparison

Electric acupuncture

Sham acupuncture

Pain relief was observed in:
• 90% of the treatment group
• 10% of the control group.

Ruchkin et al., 1987 (5)

10:6

Double-blind controlled trial

Auricular electric-acupuncture

Sham electric acupuncture (no electrical stimulation)

Subjective improvement was observed in:
• all patients in the test group
• 1 patient in the control group.

Sun et al., 1992 (6)

378:56

Group comparison

Warming acupuncture

Acupuncture

Marked improvement was observed in:
• 65.5% of the test group
• 26.8% of the control group.

Schizophrenia

Jia et al., 1986 (195)

24:13

Controlled trial

Laser acupuncture

Medication (chlorpromazine)

After 6 weeks of treatment, marked improvement was observed in:
• 78% of the test group
• 39% of the control group.

Zhang et al., 1994 (282)

38:31

Randomized controlled trial

Electric acupuncture plus conventional medication (various)

Conventional medication (various)

The therapeutic effect was significantly greater in the test group.

Sciatica

Kinoshita, 1971 (50)

15:15

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture with deep insertion of needles (10-30 mm)

Acupuncture with superficial puncture (5 mm)

The therapeutic effect was greater in the test group. The difference was statistically significant.

Kinoshita, 1981 (51)

15:15

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture at dàchángshû (BL25) with deep puncture (6 cm)

Acupuncture with superficial puncture (2 cm)

The therapeutic effect on tenderness, Lasegue’s sign, and subjective symptoms was greater in the test group. The difference was significant.

Shen, 1987 (53)

50:50

Group comparison

Long-needle acupuncture

Classical acupuncture

Effective rates were:
• 96% of the test group
• 72% of the control group.

Li, 1991 (52)

100:70

Group comparison

Acupuncture at xiazhibian

Acupuncture at zhìbiân (BL54)

Effective rates were:
• 98% of test group after 15.8 treatments, on average
• 81.4% of the control group after 27.7 treatments.

Sexual dysfunction, see Defective ejaculation; Male sexual dysfunction, non-organic

Sialorrhoea, antipsychotic-induced

Xiong et al., 1993 (242)

60:60

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Anisodamine

After 10 days of treatment, marked reduction in salivation was achieved in:
• 96.7% of the test group
• 35.9% of the control group.

Simple obesity in children

Yu et al., 1998 (283)

101:101: 50

Randomized controlled trial

Photo-acupuncture or auricular acupressure

No treatment

The effects of photo-acupuncture and auricular acupressure were satisfactory, with better results for the former. After 3 months of acupuncture treatment, the obesity indices decreased significantly and levels of blood lipids, glucose, hydrocortisone and triiodothyronine were all markedly improved.

Sjögren syndrome

List et al., 1998 (243)

21

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

No treatment

A significant increase in paraffin-stimulated saliva secretion was found in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences in unstimulated salivary secretion between groups. The study showed that acupuncture is of limited value for patients with primary Sjögren syndrome.

Small airway obstruction

Chen et al., 1997 (284)

21:21:21

Randomized controlled trial

Body acupuncture (40 min)

Body acupuncture (20 min and 60 min)

Small airway function in bronchial asthma and chronic bronchitis improved in all three groups. The best result was obtained in the test group.

Smoking, see Dependence, tobacco

Sore throat (see also Tonsillitis, acute)

Gunsberger, 1973 (118)

100 per group

Group comparison

Acupuncture at a single point or at 2 points

No treatment (acupuncture refusers) or petroleum jelly placebo

Results in the two treatment groups were significantly better than in the two control groups. At 48 h, 90% of those receiving acupuncture at 2 points were still reporting pain relief compared with only 30% of those receiving no treatment.

Spine pain, acute (see also Low back pain; Sciatica)

Santiesteban, 1984 (285)

5:5

Randomized controlled trial

Electric acupuncture

Selected physical therapy

The test group showed significant increases in range of motion, straight leg raising, & decreased pain immediately after treatment. Control group showed no improvement.

Sprain

Jiao, 1991 (68) (limb)

200:100

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Physiotherapy

Pain was relieved after 1 session of treatment in:
• 32% of the test group (in 84% after 9 sessions)
• 0% of the control group (in 18% after 9 sessions).

Jin, 1991 (69) (lumbar)

346:50

Group comparison

Hand acupuncture

Medication (analgesic)

Pain was relieved and function restored in:
• 1-3 days (average 1.06 days) in test group
• 3-10 days (average 4.38 days) in control group.

Zheng, 1997 (70) (lumbar)

100:50

Randomized group comparison

Hand acupuncture

Body acupuncture

Cure (disappearance of symptoms, free movement of the lower back, and no recurrence in 3 years) immediately after 1 session of treatment in:
• 82.4% of the test group
• 52.9% of the control group.

Stiff neck

Wu, 1997 (286)

100:32

Group comparison

Acupuncture at laozhen

Medication (ibuprofen 0.3 g, 3 times per day)

Cure was observed in:
• 80/100 (80%) in the test group after the first session, 10 after the second, and 4 after the third; 6 did not respond in 3 days
• 12/32 (38%) in the control group on the first day, 6 on the second, and 2 on the third; 12 did not respond in 3 days.

Stroke

Chen et al., 1990 (89) (ischaemic))

20 per group

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Medication (mannitol, dextrose, citicoline)

A better therapeutic effect (as assessed by EEG-map and somatosensory-evoked potential) was observed in the test group.

Zou et al., 1990 (287) (ischaemic)

32:31

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Medication (vinpocetine)

A better therapeutic effect was observed in the test group.

Bai et al., 1993 (88) (ischaemic)

40 per group

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Medication Beniol (a Chinese medicine containing linoleic acid, inositol & other vitamins), troxerutin, nimodipine)

A better neurological outcome was observed in the test group.

Hu et al., 1993 (94) (ischaemic)

30:30

Randomized controlled trial

Physiotherapy plus acupuncture

Physiotherapy

A better neurological outcome was observed for physiotherapy plus acupuncture than for physiotherapy alone.

Jin et al., 1993 (99) (hemiplegia after stroke)

108:100

Randomized group comparison

Temporal acupuncture

Traditional body acupuncture

Significantly better results were obtained in the test group.

Liang, 1993 (100) (sequelae of stroke)

50:50

Randomized controlled trial

Temporal acupuncture

Traditional body acupuncture

Significantly better results were obtained in the test group.

Johansson et al., 1993 (95) (sequelae of stroke)

38:40

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture plus physiotherapy and occupational therapy

Physiotherapy and occupational therapy

A more rapid and more complete recovery was observed in the test group.

Zhang et al.,1994 (102) (stroke with aphasia)

22:22

Randomized controlled trial

Scalp electric acupuncture

No treatment

A more rapid and more complete recovery observed in the test group.

Liao, 1997 (91) (hemiplegia after stroke)

108:107

Group comparison

Acupuncture at sh?usânl? (LI10) and fútù (ST32)

Routine medication plus hyperbaric oxygenation

Marked improvement after 20 days of treatment was observed in:
• 66.7% of the test group
• 29.0% of the control group.

Jiang et al., 1997 (90) (spontaneous limb pain after stroke)

30:30

Randomized controlled trial

Electric acupuncture

Conventional Western medication (carbamazepine)

After 30 days of treatment, the two groups showed similar amelioration of pain. Effective rates were: 90% in the test group 86.7% in the control group.

Liu et al., 1997 (92) (myodynamia after stroke)

78:56:30

Group comparison

Scalp or body acupuncture

Medication

Functional recovery was observed in:
• 75.6% of the scalp acupuncture group; total effective rate 98.7%
• 51.8% of the body acupuncture group; total effective rate 92.8%
• 16.7% control group; total effective rate 80%.

Kjendahl et al., 1997 (97) (subacute stroke)

21:20

Randomized controlled trial

Rehabilitation programme plus acupuncture

Rehabilitation programme

The test group improved significantly more than the control group during the treatment period of 6 weeks, and even more during the following year, according to motor-assessment scale, ADL, Nottingham health profile and social situation.

Gosman-Hedstrom et al., 1998 (96) (acute stroke)

104

Randomized controlled trial

Conventional rehabilitation plus deep acupuncture

Conventional rehabilitation plus superficial acupuncture or conventional rehabilitation alone

There were no differences between the groups in respect of changes in the neurological score and the Barthel and Sunnaas activities of daily living index scores after 3 and 12 months.

Si et al., 1998 (93) (acute ischaemic stroke)

42

Randomized controlled trial

Electric acupuncture plus medication

Medication

Clinical functional recovery was significantly better in the test group.

Wong et al., 1999 (98) (hemiplegia after stroke)

59:59

Randomized controlled trial

Electric acupuncture plus rehabilitation

Rehabilitation

Patients in the test group had a shorter hospital stay for rehabilitation and better neurological and functional outcomes than those in the control group, with a significant difference in scores for self-care and locomotion.

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (see also Facial pain, including craniomandibular disorders)

Raustia et al., 1986 (288)

25:25

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture

Standard stomatognathic treatment

Both treatments resulted in a significant reduction in symptoms and signs. Acupuncture seems to be useful as a complementary treatment, especially in cases with evidence of physiological or neuromuscular disturbances.

Tennis elbow

Brattberg, 1983 (42)

34:26

Group comparison

Acupuncture

Steroid injection

Improvement was observed at follow-up in:
• 61.8% of the test group
• 30.8% of the control group.

Haker et al., 1990 (43)

44:38

Randomized group comparison

Classical acupuncture

Superficial acupuncture

Short-term improvement was significantly greater in the test group.

Molsberger et al., 1994 (44)

24:24

Placebo-controlled, single-blind trial with independent evaluation

Acupuncture

Placebo (acupuncture. avoiding penetration of the skin)

Pain relief of at least 50% after 1 treatment was reported by:
• 19 of the test group; average duration of analgesia after 1 treatment, 20.2 h
• 6 of the control group; average duration of analgesia after 1 treatment, 1.4h.

Tietze syndrome

Yang, 1997 (246)

108:64

Group comparison

Acupuncture (manual) plus cupping

Routine medication (oral indometacin and local injection of prednisolone or procaine) plus physiotherapy

After 3 weeks of treatment, cure was observed in:
• 70/108 (64.8%) in the test group
• 24/64 (37.5%) in the control group.

Tinnitus

Jin et al., 1998 (220) (subjective)

35:35

Randomized controlled trial

Body acupuncture

Routine medication, including anisodamine

After 6 weeks of treatment cure was observed in:
• 8 (22.9%) in the test group; 10 (28.6%) markedly improved
• 2 (5.7%) in the control group; 6 (17.1%) markedly improved.

Vilholm et al., 1998 (221) (severe)

54

Randomized controlled crossover trial

Body acupuncture

Placebo

There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups.

Tonsillitis, acute

Chen, 1987 (117)

220:50

Group comparison

Acupuncture

Antibiotics (penicillin, etc.)

Earlier relief of fever and sore throat was observed in the test group.

Tourette syndrome

Tian et al., 1996 (217)

68:17

Randomized controlled trial

Body acupuncture plus auricular acupressure

Conventional Western medication (haloperidol)

Cure was observed in:
• 30.9% of the test group; effective rate at 6-month follow-up, 46/57 (89.7%)
• 11.8% of the control group; effective rate at 6-month follow-up, 5/13 (69.7%) in the control group.

Jin, 1998 (216)

30:30

Randomized controlled trial

Body acupuncture plus auricular acupressure

Conventional Western medication (haloperidol)

After 1 month of treatment, clinical cure with no recurrence at 6-month follow-up in:
• 30.0% of test group; overall effective rate 93.4%
• 6.7% of control group; overall effective rate 76.7%.

Ulcerative colitis, chronic

Wu et al., 1995 (134)

24:11

Group comparison

Moxibustion with herbal partition

Sulfasalazine

After 3 months of treatment, clinical cure was observed in:
• 13/24 (54%) in test group; improvement in 10
• 3/11 (27%) in the control group; improvement in 4.
The difference was significant.

Ma et al., 1997 (289)

60:30

Randomized controlled trial

Body acupuncture plus moxibustion.

Sulfasalazine plus metronidazole

After 30 days of treatment, cure (assessed both clinically and endoscopically) was observed in:
• 76.7% of the test group
• 56.7% of the control group.

Urinary tract problems, see Female urethral syndrome; Neuropathic bladder in spinal cord injury; Recurrent lower urinary tract infection; Renal colic; Urolithiasis

Urolithiasis

Zhang et al., 1992 (7)

126:118

Group comparison

Acupuncture

Fluid infusion plus herbal medication)

Cure (elimination of symptoms and signs and no residual stones revealed by X-ray or ultrasound examination) was observed in:
• 90.48% of the test group
• 33.05% of the control group.

Vascular dementia

Lai, 1997 (290)

30:30

Randomized controlled trial

Manual plus electric acupuncture

Aniracetam

Improvement after 6 weeks of treatment was observed in:
• 26 (86.7%) of the test group
• 19 (63.3%) of the control group.

Liu et al., 1998 (291)

60:60: 30:30

Randomized controlled trial

(1) Scalp electric acupuncture

(2) Nimodipine, (3) Electric acupuncture plus medication (nimodipine), or (4) No treatment

Assessment by various neuropsychological scales showed that effects of test & control procedures were comparable. After 8 weeks of treatment, assessment (of memory, intelligence and ability to take care of oneself) showed improvement in:
• 68.3% of group (1)
• 71.6% of group (2)
• 73.3% of group (3)
• 23.3% of group (4).

Condition/Study

No.

Design

Test group

Control Group

Results

Jiang et al., 1998 (292)

33:33

Randomized controlled trial

Electric acupuncture

Dihydroergotoxine

Results were superior in the test group, as assessed by the Hasegawa dementia scale and functional activities questionnaire, increase in superoxide dismutase and decreases in lipid peroxide and nitric oxide.

Viral encephalitis in children, late stage

Wang, 1998 (293)

72:42

Group comparison

Scalp electric and manual acupuncture plus routine medication as for control group

Routine medication (including antiviral and anti-inflammatory agents, and nutrients for brain tissue)

Effective rates were:
• 59/72 (81.9%) in the test group
• 19/42 (45.2%) in the control group.

Whooping cough (pertussis)

Yao et al., 1996 (87)

145:50

Randomized controlled trial

Acupuncture at bâxié (EX-UE9)

Chloramphenicol intravenous drip

After 7 days of treatment, cure was observed in:
• 98.6% of the test group
• 10% of the control group.

 

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Last updated: May 4, 2012