Note: the availability of unpublished reference material (often a student thesis) is listed in the database entry (go to www.drugpromo.info, then the review article, and click on the entry number in the review article).
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35. Bansinath, M. Sequeira, R. P. Shukla, V. K. Mathur, V. S. Brand versus generic prescribing: a perspective of the Indian cardiologists’ viewpoint. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology 1984;22:279-283.
36. Pitt, Leyland. Nel, Deon. Pharmaceutical promotion tools-their relative importance. European Journal of Marketing 1988;22:7-14.
37. Hume, Anne L. Shaughnessy, Allen F. Sources of influence on the prescribing practices of residents in family medicine. DICP, The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 1991;25:102-103.
38. Banks, James W. III. Mainous, Arch G. III. Attitudes of medical school faculty toward gifts from the pharmaceutical industry. Academic Medicine 1992;67:610-612.
39. Poirier, Therese I. Giannetti, Vincent. Giudici, Raymond A. Pharmacists’ and physicians’ attitudes toward phamaceutical marketing practices. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy 1994;51:378-381.
40. La Puma, John. Stocking, Carol B. Rhoades, William D. Darling, Cheryl M. Financial ties as part of informed consent to post-marketing research: attitudes of American doctors and patients. BMJ 1995;310:1660-1663.
41. Prevention Magazine. International survey on wellness and consumer reaction to DTC advertising of prescription drugs. Vol.1. US report with international perspectives. Rodale Press, 2000/2001.
42. Petroshius, Susan M. Titus, Philip A. Hatch, Kathryn J. Physician attitudes toward pharmaceutical advertising. Journal of Advertising Research 1995;35:41-51.
43. Cutrer, Christine M. Pleil, Andreas M. Potential outcomes associated with direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs: physicians’ perspectives. Journal of Pharmaceutical Marketing & Management 1991;5:3-19.
44. Lipsky, Martin S. Taylor, Christine A. The opinions and experiences of family physicians regarding direct-to-consumer advertising. Journal of Family Practice 1997;45:495-499.
45. Lipton, Charles. Consumer advertising and pharmaceuticals: a happy marriage? Journal of Pharmaceutical Marketing & Management 1986;1:23-28.
46. Bell, Robert A. Kravitz, Richard L. Wilkes, Michael S. Direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising and the public. Journal of General Internal Medicine 1999;14:651-657.
47. Magazine Publishers of America. Magazines: a healthy diagnosis. Return on investment for DTC pharmaceutical advertising. A study measuring the effectiveness of allergy advertising by PERZ/HCI. New York: Magazine Publishers of America; 1999.
48. Maddox, Lynda M. Katsanis, Lea Prevel. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs in Canada: its potential effect on patient-physician interaction. Journal of Pharmaceutical Marketing & Management 1997;12:1-21.
49. Rockwell, Tom. The Lifetime experience with prescription drug advertising exposed to consumers. Journal of Pharmaceutical Marketing & Management 1986;1:13-18.
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51. Mintzes, Barbara. Kazanjian. Bassett, Ken. Lexchin, Joel. An assessment of the health system impact of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription medicines (DTCA). Volume IV: pills, persuasion and public health policies. Report of an expert survey on direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs in Canada, the United States and New Zealand. Vancouver: Centre for Health Services & Policy Research; June 2001.
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53. Amonkar, Mayur Mohan. Lively, Buford T. Pharmacists' attitudes toward product-specific television advertising of prescription drugs. Journal of Pharmaceutical Marketing & Management 1996;11:3-20.
54. Linn, Lawrence S. Davis, Milton S. Physicians’ orientation toward the legitimacy of drug use and their preferred source of new drug information. Social Science and Medicine 1972;6:199-203.
55. Andaleeb, Syed Saad. Tallman, Robert F. Physician attitudes toward pharmaceutical sales representatives. Health Care Marketing Review 1995;20:68-76.
56. Stinson, E. Ray. Mueller, Dorothy A. Survey of health professionals’ information habits and needs: conducted through personal interviews. JAMA 1980;243:140-143.
57. Evans, Kenneth R. Beltramini, Richard F. Physician acquisition of prescription drug information. Journal of Health Care Marketing 1986;615-25.
58. Oppenheim, Gene L. Erickson, Steven H. Ashworth, Clark. The family physician’s knowledge of the cost of prescribed drugs. Journal of Family Practice 1981;12:1027-1030.
59. Miller, Lucinda G. Blum, Alan. Physician awareness of prescription drug costs: a missing element of drug advertising and promotion. Journal of Family Practice 1993;36:33-36.
60. Santell, John P. Sirdwell, Stephen W. Scheckelhoff, Douglas J. Perception of the role of medical-service representatives in hospitals. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy 1990;47:1354-1359.
61. Hull, F. M. Marshall, T. Sources of information about new drugs and attitudes towards drug prescribing: an international study of differences between primary care physicians. Family Practice 1987;4:123-128.
62. Ziegler, Michael G. Lew, Pauline. Singer, Brian C. The accuracy of drug information from pharmaceutical sales representatives. JAMA 1995;273:1296-1298
63. Avorn, Jerry. Chen, Milton. Hartley, Robert. Scientific versus commercial sources of influence on the prescribing behavior of physicians. American Journal of Medicine 1982;73:4-8.
64. Greenwood, Justin. Pharmaceutical representatives and the prescribing of drugs by family doctors. Nottingham University; 1989 (unpublished).
65. Engle, Robert L. The impact of a single-advertiser publication on physicians’ perceptions and expected prescribing behavior. Journal of Pharmaceutical Marketing & Management 1994;8:37-54.
66. Sandberg, Warren S. Carlos, Ruth. Sandberg, Elisabeth H. Roizen, Michael F. The effect of educational gifts from pharmaceutical firms on medical students’ recall of company names or products. Academic Medicine 1997;72:16-918.
67. Spingarn, Roger W. Berlin, Jesse A. Strom, Brian L. When pharmaceutical manufacturers’ employees present grand rounds, what do residents remember? Academic Medicine 1996;71:86-88.
68. Sansgiry, Shubhada. Sharp, William T. Sansgiry, Sujit S. Consumer understanding and interpretation of printed over-the-counter drug advertisements. Journal of Pharmaceutical Marketing & Management 1999;13:15-26.
69. Ferry, Margaret E. Lamy, Peter P. Becker, Lorne A. Physicians’ knowledge of prescribing for the elderly: a study of primary care physicians in Pennsylvania. Journal of the American Geriatric Society 1985;33:616-622.
70. Moser, Robert H. The continuing search: FDA drug information survey. JAMA 1974;229:1336-1338.
71. Christensen, Dale B. Wertheimer, Albert I. Sources of information and influence on new drug prescribing among physicians in an HMO. Social Science and Medicine 1979;13A:313-322.
72. Ahmad, Syed Rizwanuddin. Bhutta, Zulfiqar Ahmed. A survey of pediatric prescribing and dispensing in Karachi. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association 1990;40:126-130.
73. Tomson, G. Angunawela, I. Patients, doctors and their drugs: a study at four levels of health care in an area of Sri Lanka. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1990;39:463-467.
74. Osiobe, Stephen A. Sources of information for biomedical decision-making. Methods of Information in Medicine 1985;24:225-229.
75. Osiobe, Stephen A. Physicians’ and pharmacists’ drug information sources in Nigeria. Drug Information Journal 1988;22:553-563.
76. Hatton, Randy C. Doering, Paul L. Frias, Jaime L. Physicians’ sources of information about teratogenic effects of drugs. Drug Information Journal 1982;16:148-154.
77. Williams, James R. Hensel, Paul J. Changes in physicians’ sources of pharmaceutical information: a review and analysis. Journal of Health Care Marketing 1991;11:46-60.
78. Abate, Marie A. Jacknowitz, Arthur I. Shumway, James M. Information sources utilized by private practice and university physicians. Drug Information Journal 1989;23:304-319.
79. Murray-Lyon, N. Communication in medicine: a study of how family doctors obtain information on recent advances in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. Medical Education 1997;11:95-102.
80. Gaither, Caroline A. Bagozzi, Richard P. Kirking, Duane M. Ascione, Frank J. Factors related to physicians’ attitudes and beliefs toward drug information sources. Drug Information Journal 1994;28:817-827.
81. Hibberd, Patricia L. Meadows, A. J. Use of drug information sources by hospital doctors. Journal of Information Science 1980;2:169-172.
82. Eaton, Gail. Parish, Peter. Sources of drug information used by general practitioners. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 1976;26:58-64.
83. Strickland-Hodge, B. Jepson, M. H. Usage of information sources by general practitioners. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 1980;73:857-862.
84. Peay, Marilyn Y. Peay, Edmund R. Innovation in high risk drug therapy. Social Science and Medicine 1994;39:39-52.
85. Manning, Phil R. Denson, Teri A. How internists learned about cimetidine. Annals of Internal Medicine 1980;92:690-692.
86. Parboosingh, John. Lockyer, Jocelyn. McDougall, Gerald. Chugh, Urmil. How physicians make changes in their clinical practice: a study of physicians’ perception of factors that facilitate this process. Annals of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada 1984;17:429-435.
87. Williamson, P. M. How general practitioners assess risks in using new drugs. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 1975;25:383-386.
88. Lefkowitz, David III. Rap sheet on reps: the doctor will see you now. Pharmaceutical Executive 1988;6:38-42
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90. Greenwood, Justin. Prescribing and salesmanship. HAI News 989:1-2, 11.
91. Lexchin, Joel. Interactions between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry: what does the literature say? Canadian Medical Association Journal 1993;149:1401-1407.
92. Cardenas, Eduardo Zarate. Isenrich, Lucia Llosa. Prescribing habits of Peruvian physicians and factors influencing them. Bulletin of PAHO 1995;29:328-337.
93. Taylor, A. Violations of the international code of marketing of breast milk substitutes: prevalence in four countries. BMJ 1999;316:1117-1122.
94. Taylor, Ross J. Bond, Christine M. Change in the established prescribing habits of general practitioners: an analysis of initial prescriptions in general practice. British Journal of General Practice 1991;41:244-248.
95. Dasta, Joseph F. Visconti, James A. Hawksworth, K. The adoption of clarithromycin by university-based physicians during its first year of commercial availability. Journal of Pharmaceutical Marketing & Management 1995;9:3-20.
96. Peay, Marilyn Y. Peay, Edmund R. Patterns of preference for information sources in the adoption of new drugs by specialists. Social Science and Medicine 1990;31:467-476.
97. Curry, Lynn. Putnam, R. Wayne. Continuing medical education in Maritime Canada: the methods physicians use, would prefer and find most effective. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1981;124:563-566.
98. Lurie, Nicole. Rich, Eugene C. Simpson, Deborah E. Meyer, Jeff. Schiedermayer, David L. Goodman, Jesse L. McKinney, W. Paul. Pharmaceutical representatives in academic medical centers: interaction with faculty and housestaff. Journal of General Internal Medicine 1990;5:240-243.
99. Mapes, Roy. Aspects of British general practitioners’ prescribing. Medical Care 1977;15:371-381.
100. Bower, Anthony D. Burkett, Gary L. Family physicians and generic drugs: a study of recognition, information sources, prescribing attitudes, and practices. Journal of Family Practice 1987;24:612-616.
101. Caudill, T. Shawn. Johnson, Mitzi S. Rich, Eugene C. McKinney, W. Paul. Physicians, pharmaceutical sales representatives, and the cost of prescribing. Archives of Family Medicine 1996;5:201-206.
102. Becker, Marshall H. Stolley, Paul D. Lasagna, Louis. McEvilla, Joseph D. Sloane, Lois M. Differential education concerning therapeutics and resultant physician prescribing patterns. Journal of Medical Education 1972;47:118-127.
103. Stolley, Paul D. Becker, Marshall H. Lasagna, Louis. McEvilla, Joseph D. Sloane, Lois M. The relationship between physicians characteristics and prescribing appropriateness. Medical Care 1972;10:17-28.
104. Haayer, Flora. Rational prescribing and sources of information. Social Science and Medicine 1982;16:2017-2023.
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106. Williams, A. Paul. Cockerill, Rhonda. Report on the 1989 survey of the prescribing experiences and attitudes toward prescription drugs of Ontario physicians. Toronto: Government of Ontario; 1990(?).
107. Stross, Jeoffrey K. Information sources and clinical decisions. Journal of General Internal Medicine 1987;2:155-159.
108. Strickland-Hodge, B. Jepson, M. H. Identification and characterization of early and late prescribers in general practice. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 1982;75:341-345.
109. Peay, Marilyn Y. Peay, Edmund R. The role of commercial sources in the adoption of a new drug. Social Science and Medicine 1988;26:1183-1189.
110. Orlowski, James P. Wateska, Leon. The effects of pharmaceutical firm enticements on physician prescribing patterns: there’s no such thing as a free lunch. Chest 1992;102:270-273.
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118. Berings, D. Blondeel, L. Habraken, H. The effect of industry-independent drug information on the prescribing of benzodiazepines in general practice. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1994;46:501-505.
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121. Backer, Elisabeth L. Lebsack, Jason A. van Tonder, R.J.N. Crabtree, Benjamin F. The value of pharmaceutical representative visits and medication samples in community-based family practices. Journal of Family Practice 2000;49:811-816.
122. Morelli, Daniel. Koenigsberg, Marlon Russell. Sample medication dispensing in a residency practice. Journal of Family Practice 1992;34:42-48.
123. Chew, Lisa D. O'Young, Theresa S. Hazlet, Thomas K. Bradley, Katharine A. Maynard, Charles. Lessler, Daniel S. A physician survey of the effect of drug sample availability on physicians' behavior. Journal of General Internal Medicine 2000;15:478-483.
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125. Tong, Kevin L. Lien, Chia-Yen. Do pharmaceutical representative misuse their drug samples? Canadian Family Physician 1995;41:1363-1366.
126. Cleary, John D. Impact of pharmaceutical sales representatives on physician antibiotic prescribing. Journal of Pharmacy Technology 1992;8:27-29.
127. Dieperink, Michael. Drogemuller, Lisa. Industry-sponsored grand rounds and prescribing behavior. JAMA 2001;285:1443-1444.
128. Stern, Robert S. Drug promotion for an unlabeled indication; the case of topical tretinoin. New England Journal of Medicine 1994;331:1348-1349.
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130. Mackowiak, John I. Gagnon, Jean Paul. Effects of promotion on pharmaceutical demand. Social Science and Medicine 1985;20:1191-1197.
131. Basara, Lisa Ruby. The impact of a direct-to-consumer prescription medication advertising campaign on new prescription volume. Drug Information Journal 1996;30:715-729.
132. Zachry, Woodie M. III. Shepherd, Marvin D. Hinich, Melvin J. Wilson, James P. Brown, Carolyn M. Lawson, Kenneth A. Relationship between direct-to-consumer advertising and physician diagnosing and prescribing. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 2002;59:42-49.
133. Krupka, Lawrence R. Vener, Arthur M. Prescription drug advertising: trends and implications. Social Science and Medicine 1985;20:191-197.
134. Dajda, Richard. Drug advertising and prescribing. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 1978;28:538-541.
135. Suresh, C. G. Greene D. Coupe, M. O. Use of adenosine and effectiveness of pharmaceutical marketing. Lancet 1993;341:1539.
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137. Mintzes, Barbara. An assessment of the health system impact of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription medicines (DTCA). Volume II: literature review. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs: what do we know thus far about its effects on health and health care services? Vancouver: Centre for Health Services and Policy Research; August 2001.
138. Everett, Stephen E. Lay audience response to prescription drug advertising. Journal of Advertising Research 1991;31:43-49.
139. Bell, Robert A. Wilkes, Michael S. Kravitz, Richard L. Advertisement-induced prescription drug requests: patients' anticipated reactions to a physician who refuses. Journal of Family Practice 1999;48:446-452.
140. Perri, Matthew. Dickson, W. Michael. Direct to consumer prescription drug advertising: consumer attitudes and physician reaction. Journal of Pharmaceutical Marketing & Management 1987;2:3-25.
141. Morris, Louis A. Mazis, Michael B. Brinberg, David. Risk disclosures in televised prescription drug advertising to consumers. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing 1989;8:64-80.
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147. Anderson, Jennifer J. Felson, David T. Meenan, Robert F. Secular changes in published clinical trials of second-line agents in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism 1991;34:1304-1309.
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149. Dorman, Paul J. Counsell, Carl. Sandercock, Peter. Reports of randomized trials in acute stroke, 1955 to 1995: what proportions were commercially sponsored? Stroke 1999;30:1995-1998.
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